ITcon Vol. 12, pg. 381-407,

3D and 4D modeling for design and construction coordination: issues and lessons learned

submitted:September 2006
revised:July 2007
published:July 2007
editor(s):Björk B-C
authors:Sheryl Staub-French, Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia

Atul Khanzode, Business Analyst and PhD Candidate
DPR Construction Inc. and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University
summary:3D and 4D modeling tools have been available in the marketplace for some time. The past few years has seen a growing interest from the design and construction community to adopt these tools. As many project teams are realizing, implementing 3D and 4D modeling on an actual project is a complicated process that requires a coordinated effort. No guidelines currently exist on using these tools in a multi-disciplinary and multi-organizational environment and project teams are forced to figure this out on their own in real time as the project progresses. This paper addresses this shortcoming by providing guidelines that describe how to overcome the technical, procedural and organizational issues confronted by project teams as they undertake this new way of working. Specifically, the paper describes different approaches for assembling a project team to leverage these technologies, the modeling requirements for implementing 3D and 4D projects, the 3D and 4D modeling processes, the benefits and shortcomings of the process and technologies, the effect of these technologies on the project's outcome, and the lessons learned. This paper is intended for industry professionals interested in pursuing this type of innovative project delivery. This paper will also be of interest to researchers as it illustrates the limitations of emerging 3D and 4D technologies
keywords:3D model, 4D model, computer aided design (CAD), virtual design and construction, virtual building technologies, design coordination, MEP coordination, construction scheduling.
full text: (PDF file, 3.505 MB)
citation:Staub-French S and Khanzode A (2007). 3D and 4D modeling for design and construction coordination: issues and lessons learned, ITcon Vol. 12, pg. 381-407,